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English language

Connecting ideas

1- Connecting ideas with AND:

When and connects only two items within a sentence, no comma is used. When and connects three or more items in a series in a sentence, comma is used. They saw a cat and a mouse. He saw a cat, a mouse, a man, and a woman. (and connects nouns) I opened the door, walked into the room, and sat down at my desk (and connect verbs) Their flag is red, yellow, and black. (And connects adjectives) The comma before and is optional. When and connects two sentences a comma is usually used. I saw a bird, and she saw a sun. Two completes sentences (also called independent clauses) are separated by a period, not a comma. I saw a bird. She saw a sun. A period = full stop (British English)

2- Connecting ideas with BUT and OR:

I went to bed but couldnít sleep. Is this a book or an exercise book? Did you order coffee, tea, or milk? And, but and or are called ďconjunctionsĒ. But and or are used in the same ways as and. I dropped the vase, but it didnít break. I dropped the vase. But it didnít break. (Also possible) Do we have class on Monday, or is Monday holiday?

3- Connecting ideas with SO:

I frequently use the e-mail, so I rarely write letters. We arenít in the paper age anymore. So can be used as a junction. It is preceded by a comma. It connects the ideas in two independent clauses. So expresses results: Cause: I frequently use the e-mail: Result: I rarely write letters.

4- Using auxiliary verbs after but and and

He doesnít like coffee, but his wife does. She likes tea, but he doesnít. He isnít here, but she is. She wonít be here, but her husband will. They have learned Spanish, but she hasnít. He likes Mathematics, and she does too. I donít like some music, and she doesnít either. I wonít go downtown, and he wonít either. They didn't pass the exam, but she did. After but and and often a main verb is not repeated. Instead, only an auxiliary verb is used. This auxiliary is a substitute for the main verb phrase. The auxiliary after but and and has the same tense or modal as the main verb. Keep in mind that we have not contraction of a verb with a pronoun at the end of the sentence. He isnít here, but she is. Not but sheís. Notice that: - With BUT, we use the opposite. - With AND, we donít use the opposite: TOO with affirmative sentence. EITHER with negative sentence.


She likes milk, and he does too. She likes milk, and so does he. She doesnít like milk, and he doesnít either. She doesnít like milk, and neither does he. Do you like Math? So do I. Too: With so Either:With neither Keep in mind that with neither we have an affirmative auxiliary With two speakers: - Iím hungry. Iím too. So am I. (Me too: is informal) I donít hear from you! - I donít either. Neither do I. (Me neither is informal) Remark that with two speakers, and is usually not used.

6- Connecting ideas with BECAUSE:

He called his friend because he needed her. Main clause adverb clause Because he needed her, he called her. Because expresses a cause. It gives a reason. It introduces an adverb clause. A main clause is a complete sentence. An adverb clause is not a complete sentence.

7- Connecting ideas with even though/although:

Even though (although) I was thirsty, I didnít drink. I didnít drink even though (although) I was thirsty. Even though and although introduce an adverb clause. Even though (although) I was thirsty, I didnít drink. Because I was thirsty, I drink. Because expresses an expected result. Even though / although expresses an unexpected or opposite result.

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