Adverb clauses

Because is an adverb. But because of is a preposition.

 
PART I: Adverb Clauses

1. Introduction:

Examples: When she was in Miami, she visited many friends. She visited many friends when she was in Miami. When she was in Miami: is an adverb clause. She visited many friends: Independent clause. An adverb clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause. When an adverb clause precedes an independent clause, a comma is used to separate the clauses. When the adverb clause follows, usually no comma is used. Examples: Because she wanted to visit her friends, she went to Miami. She went to Miami because she wanted to visit her friends. Like when, because introduces an adverb clause. The words used to introduce adverb clauses are called subordinating conjunction.
Time:
After, before, when, while, as by the time (that), whenever, since, until, as soon as, once, as so long as.
Cause and effect:
Because, since, now that, as so long as, inasmuch as, so (that), in order that.
Opposition:
Even though, although, though, whereas, while.
Condition:
If, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing (that), Provided (that), in case (that), in the event (that).

2.Time relationships with adverb clauses.

Examples: After she (had) came, she turned on the radio. After she comes, she will turn on the radio. Before she came, she (had) turned on the radio. Before she comes, she will turn on the radio. The adverb clause contains a present tense while the independent clause contains a future time. When he came, she was turning on the radio. When he came, she had already turned on the radio. When he came, she turned on the radio. When he was out, she turned on the radio. When he comes tomorrow, she will turn on the radio. While she was listening to the radio, he knocked at the door. As she was listening to the radio, he knocked at the door. As, while = during this time. By the time he came, she had already listened the news. By the time he comes, she will listen the news. By the time = one event is completed before another event. She listens to the radio whenever he comes. Whenever = every time when She stayed at home until he came. Until = till = to that time and then no longer. She hasn’t listened to the radio since he came. Since = from that time to the present. As soon as he knocks at the door, she will turn off the radio. Once he knocks at the door, she will turn off the radio. As soon as = once = when one event happens, another Event happens soon afterwards. He won’t come as long as she smokes. He will never come so long as she doesn’t call him. As long as = so long as = during all that time, from beginning to end.

3.Cause and effect relationships with adverb clauses.

Because: Examples: Because he wanted to visit his friends, he went to Miami. He went to Miami because he wanted to visit his friends. Since: Examples: Since she never heard about cloning, she decided to not speak about it. Since = because Now that: Now that he has a lot of money, he can afford a new computer. Now that = because now. It is used for present and future situations. As: As they graduated, they were looking for jobs. As = because As/so long as: As long as he works for this company, he can’t learn anything. As/so long as = because Inasmuch as (very formal): Inasmuch as anybody is responsible, the situation becomes worse and worse. Inasmuch as = because
Part II: Other Ways of Showing Cause and Effect Relationships:

1. Such … that and so … that:

Such … that encloses a modified noun: Such + adjective +noun + that So … that encloses an adjective or adverb: So + adjective + that So + adverb + that Examples: Because the exam was easy, they could pass it. (1) It was such easy exam that they could pass it. (2) The exam was so easy that they could pass it. (3) (1), (2) and (3) have the same meaning. So … that is used with many, few, much and little. Examples: They worked so hard that they passed the exam. She made so many mistakes that she failed the exam. He had so much time that he went to hike. They have so little work to do that they share it. He has so few books that he wants to buy some. Sometimes in speaking, that is omitted. The exam was so easy that I could pass it. I had so much time that I went to hike.

2.Using “In order to”:

In order to = to. It is used to express purpose. It answers the question “Why”? Examples: He went to Miami because he wanted to visit his friends. He went to Miami (in order) to visit his friends. Don’t use for with a verb to express purpose. Sometimes we use for to express purpose but with a noun. He went to Miami for business.

3. Using: So …that:

So that = in order to So that = in order that. So that + can: So that is often used rather in order to when the idea of ability is being expressed. Examples: He is going to make a registration in order to be able to take courses. He is going to make a registration so (that) he can take courses. So that + could: Could is used after so that in past sentences. Examples: He repaired his car in order to enable his friend to use it. He repaired his car so (that) his friend could use it. May and might may also be used after that, but are not as common as can and could. So that + will: The use of will after so that gives the idea that someone does something in order to make sure that something else is the result. Examples: She fill her car up in order to make sure that she will not run out of gaz during her trip across The Nevada desert. She fills her car up so (that) she will not run out of gaz during her trip across The Nevada desert. So that would: Would is used in past tense. Examples: Last week, he early left his car in the garage in order to make sure that it would be ready by eleven. Last week, he left leaves his car in the garage so (that) it would be ready by eleven.

4.Using: “because of” and “due to”:

Examples: Because she was sick, she didn’t come to attend the speech. Because of her sickness, she didn’t come to attend the speech. Due to her sickness, she didn’t come to attend the speech. Because is an adverb. It introduces an adverb clause. It is followed by a subject and verb. Because of and due to are prepositions. They are followed by a noun object. Sometimes, usually, in more formal writing, due to is followed by a noun clause introduced by the fact that. Due to the fact that she was sick, she didn’t come to attend the speech.

5. Using “therefore”:

Examples: He passed his exams because he worked very hard. Therefore is called a transition (or conjunctive adverb) He worked very hard. Therefore, he passed his exams. He worked very hard. He, therefore, he passed his exams. He worked very hard. He passed his exams, therefore. A semicolon may be used instead a period: He worked very hard; therefore, he passed his exams. Consequently is also a transition and has the same meaning as therefore: He worked very hard. Consequently, he passed his exams. A transition is used with the second sentence of a pair. It shows the relationship of the second idea to the first idea. A transition is movable within the second sentence.

6. Punctuations:

Adverb clause:
Examples: Because she was sick, she didn’t come to attend the speech. She didn’t come to attend the speech because she was sick. An adverb clause may precede or follow an independent clause. A comma is used if the adverb clause comes first.
Preposition:
Because of her sickness, she didn’t come to attend the speech. She didn’t come to attend the speech because of her sickness. A preposition is followed by a noun, not by a subject and verb. A comma is usually used if the prepositional phrase precedes the subject and verb of the independent clause.
Conjunction:
She was sick, so she didn’t come to attend the speech. A conjunction comes between two independent clauses. Usually a comma is used immediately in front of a conjunction.
Transition:
He worked very hard. (;) Therefore, he passed his exams. He worked very hard. (;) He, therefore, he passed his exams. He worked very hard. (;) He passed his exams, therefore. Either a period or a semicolon may be used between the two dependent clauses. A comma may not be used to separate the clauses. Commas are usually used to set the transition off from the rest of the sentence.
PART III: Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Phrases

1.Changing time clauses to modifying phrases:

Some adverb clauses may be changed to modifying phrases. The way is the same as changing adjective clauses:

2. Expressing the idea of “During the same time” in modifying phrases:

Examples: While he was reading, he felt very upset. While reading, he felt very upset. Reading, he felt very upset. Going home, she saw an ancient car on the sidewalk. Sometimes while is omitted but the -ing phrase at the beginning of the sentence gives the same meaning (= during the same time)

3. Expressing cause and effect relationships in modifying phrases:

Because is not used in a modifying phrase. It is omitted, but the resulting phrase expresses a cause and effect relationship. Because he worked, he didn’t come to attend the speech. Working, he didn’t come to attend the speech. Often an -ing phrase at the beginning of a sentence gives the meaning of “because”. Because she has moved, she doesn’t remember the way to the market. Having moved, she doesn’t remember the way to the market. Having + past participle gives the meaning not only of because, but also of before. Because he was unable to afford the truth, he lied a lot. Being unable to afford the truth, he lied a lot. Unable to afford the truth, he lied a lot. The form of be in the adverb clause is often changed to being. The use of being makes the cause and effect relationship clear.


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